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The microcontroller is a self-contained system with peripherals, memory and a processor that can be used as embedded system.
For embedded system, the buses used for communication includes
While ISA, EISA, PCI are standard buses for parallel communication used in PCs, computer network devices, etc.
The hard real time systems are the one that depend on the output very strictly on time. Any late response or delay cannot be tolerated and will always be considered a failure. The soft real time systems on the other are not very rigid as the hard real time systems. The performance of the system degrades with the lateness of response, but it is bearable and can be optimized to a certain level for reuse of the result.
The recursive functions refer to the functions which make calls to itself before giving out the final result. These can be declared as in-line functions and the compiler will allocate the memory space intended for the first call of the function.
RTOS stands for Real-Time Operating System. It specially designed to run the application with very precise timing and a high degree of reliability. An RTOS system must have response time predictability and it must be deterministic.
The serial peripheral interface is four wire-based protocol these wire generally known as MOSI (master out slave in), MISO (master in slave out), SCL (serial clock which produces by the master) and SS (slave select line which use to select specific slave during the communication).
A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer. It is a message-based protocol, designed originally for multiplex electrical wiring within automobiles to save on copper, but can also be used in many other contexts.